Wien , , 48 and These percentages include the population of Prague and its inner suburbs. Cohen, Gary G.
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Princeton , Bohemia 52 1, 38 Bohemia Band 52 putes between its Czech and German leaders and crushed by military force in June , its long-term impact remade the city. The abolition of serfdom laid the foundations for industrial development in the Empire, and the neo-absolutist regime imposed after the revolution put in place liberal economic policies that fueled the expansion of business. As the economy grew, peasants from the Czech-speaking countryside migrated to the growing city, shifting its ethnic balance at a time when national movements were challenging traditional loyalties and creating new societal fault lines based on language and ethnicity.
Prague in appeared to be a German city.
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Although most residents spoke some German, only the highest strata spoke it exclusively since the majority of the population was bilingual. Nevertheless, it would be incorrect to describe Prague as a German city at this time. Language was a marker of class and a means of social advancement, and identity was regional rather than ethnic. In the ensuing decades, however, as industrial development was transforming the city, modern conceptions of identity appeared that elevated language into the "touchstone of belonging to the nation.
The Czech mayors of Prague undertook to remake their city into a modern metropolis and cultural center with a distinctive Czech character. Like other municipal authorities at this time, they focused much of their effort on modernizing the city. One of the first steps in this process began following the Austro-Prussian War, when Prague suffered defeat and occupation at the hands of the Prussians.
Recognizing that the walls around the city were obsolete, Emperor Francis Joseph offered to donate them to the city as well as to compensate the city financially for its wartime suffering. In the end, the city had to pay for the fortifications, and did not receive all the funds the emperor had promised. As a result, dismantling the walls stretched from to On the changes in municipal government at this time, see King, Jeremy: The Municipal and the National in the Bohemian Lands, In: Austrian History Yearbook 42 Over the years, the purpose of the city walls had changed from protection to policing the inhabitants to toll-collecting.
Praha , 66, and The effort to annex these suburbs to the core city, creating Greater Prague, was part of a trend in urban development that produced Greater Vienna, Greater Berlin, and other urban conglomerations. This project was less successful in Prague, as suburban officials balked at sacrificing their local power and advantageous tax structures to join the core city. The most spectacular example of urban renewal in Prague was the project to raze one of the oldest sections of the city, the area of the former Jewish ghetto known as 11 Josefov.
Directly adjacent to the Old Town Square, the site of Prague's city hall, Josefov was a densely inhabited slum in which disease and crime were rampant. Agnes Convent. In the end, a scaled-down project was undertaken that did not extend beyond the area of the ghetto itself. Nevertheless, it was one of the most ambitious urban modernization projects in nineteenth-century Europe, entailing the destruction of buildings.
The drive to make Prague into a modern city, equal to the other great cities of Europe, was part of a broader effort to advance the agenda of Czech nationalism.
Praha , Documenta Pragensia Monographia 9. Brno , , This program is the subject of Giustino, Cathleen M. Boulder Storck, Christopher P. The term "Golden Prague" has been ascribed to the sixteenth-century humanist poet, Peter Capella, whose references to "aurea" described the wealth of the city that the Habsburg Emperor Rudolf II had made the seat of his empire. The last German to hold a seat on the city Council left it in Jahrhundert: Vom Klassizismus zur Moderne.
Nolte: Celebrating Slavic Prague 41 C z e c h h i s t o r y and legends p a i n t e d b y C z e c h artists, t h e neo-Renaissance building was m o r e t h a n a theater in its early years; rather, it was a national shrine and a site of pilgrimage for C z e c h s b o t h inside and outside t h e E m p i r e. Nolte, Claire E. Storck: Kulturnation und Nationalkunst cf. Olomouc , From their origins as trade shows promoting economic progress, these events had been steeped in the language of modernity and progress. By the end of the Century, they had evolved into grand spectacles, representing a new "megagenre of cultural performance" that engaged the work of artists and architects, directors and musicians, and turned entire cities into Staging areas.
This was especially important for cities like Prague, as Andreas R.
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Hofmann has pointed out: "the modernizing potential of the grand exhibitions is incalculable in the context of East Central Europe. The signs featured white letters on a red background with blue or white frames, a reference to the Czech nationalist colors from Jana Pleskalova].
MacAloon, John J. In: MacAloon, John M. Philadelphia , , Manchester , Hofmann, Andreas R. In: Bohemia 32 no. Praha , Slovo k historii The large numbers of visitors transformed the city, which had been decorated 36 especially for the occasion, lending it a "completely new face. But the "largest assault of foreign and domestic visitors" arrived for the second festival, called a "Slet", of the nationalist gymnastic society Sokol, which attracted an estimated 20, spectators, including a group of French gymnasts along with contingents from other Slavic nations, and featured a parade through Prague of 5, members.
Just as the exhibition itself presented a "linear view of Czech history by telling a concrete story of Czech economic progress," the tours of Prague for foreign visitors emphasized its Czech identity and the central role it played in Slavic history. Stuttgart , Basingstoke, UK , In: Austrian History Yearbook 24 , O n the opening day of the exhibition in May , its daily newspaper predicted that "after the exhibition, the name of the Czechs will not be allowed to be missing on the reckoning of modern nations, of enlightened nations, of the first nations of 41 the world.
Prague in was in many ways an historie city only beginning to shed its Old World appearance.
Nolte: Celebrating Slavic Prague 47 peasant cottage built in a supposedly Czech style, attracted a wide array of visitors, including "wealthy urban dwellers and rieh foreigners [ In July , he assembled a committee to prepare a proposal and by September , while the Jubilee Exhibition was still going on, a proclamation appeared in the national press. In: Slavic Review 69 Fall no.
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Bohemia Band 52 48 Czech nationalists. For the first time at a large enterprise, which could not fail to attract the 50 attention of the wider world, our usual bilingualism was dispensed with. Despite low attendance at the beginning, over two million visitors 51 had come to the exhibition by the time it closed on October Like the Jubilee Exhibition, visitors arriving on reserved trains were welcomed at the Prague station and treated to special dinners and theatrical evenings.
Clubs and organizations held meetings in Prague to coincide with the event, among them the third Slet of the Czech Sokol Union featuring a parade of 7, uniformed members. Nolte: The Sokol in the Czech Lands cf. Praga caput regni. Almost one-third of the album of the Ethnographic Exhibition is devoted to peasant life and customs. This does not include the sections in the album describing the exhibits of Czech towns and provinces, many of which also included scenes from peasant life.
An explanation of this display is provided by Herain, J. We are convinced that with this event we will again dress up our royal city of Prague, it will shine again in its sumptuous dress to the pride and the pleasure of all Slavdom and the admiration of the entire civilized world. Slet Organizers chose fith-century B. The Federation is the subject of Nolte, Ciaire E. One for All! In: Judson, Pieter M. N e w York , Praga caput regni, 1 cf fn.
All-Sokol Slet, inv. The last horse-drawn tram ceased Operation in The first railroad arrived in Prague in Poche, Emanuel: Architektura [Architecture]. City leaders were seemingly ubiquitous, greeting over visiting dignitaries, among them a high-level delegation from the city of Paris along with the mayors of Ljubljana, Zagreb and Beigrade, hosting dinners and receptions, and reviewing the 68 giant Slet parade of almost 18, marchers in the Old Town Square.
The effect was truly "monumental", in accordance with the desire of its sculptor Stanislav Sucharda to erect the largest statue in 69 Prague. The toasts at this closing dinner compared Prague to Paris, as one of "two cities in Europe, which grew up with its nation," and also likened Prague to Mecca, because it was the place Slavs regarded as "the birthplace of all the great ideas which govern Slavdom.
Praha , 6. The speech is recorded in: I. In his speech at the concluding ceremonies of the Jubilee Exhibition in , Prague's mayor made a similar analogy, "As Bethlehem was not last among the Jewish cities, so also Prague has not been last among the Central European cities. Nolte: Celebrating Slavic Prague 53 attention of almost all Europe.
This small city, for many years neglected and vilified, 72 became a center of Czech power, Slavic reciprocity, and European hospitality. The Slet provided an excellent opportunity to show off the new town center that was now nearly complete. The reviewing Stands for the Slet parade on Old Town Square no longer looked out on the slums of Josefov; rather visitors saw a broad new boulevard, lined with grand apartment houses and luxury shops that ended with a new bridge over the Vltava river.
Dinners and concerts took place in the bright new quarters of the Municipal House, where participants were surrounded with murals from Czech history and mythology. Tours of the city highlighted its Czech identity, from its historie core to its new representational buildings and monuments.
For many visitors, the Slet and its celebration of Prague had the desired impact. The French correspondent for the newspaper "Le Temps" declared that he "had come to Prague as an observer and left as an admirer," an Italian Journalist described the city as "Golden Prague, Prague of a hundred spires [ Posudky ciziny o sletu [Opinions about the slet from foreign countries]. Praha , 23 Slovo k historii Prague , Emphasis added. List of Illustrations Fig. Surrealismus in Prag. Ludwigshafen ; Anaut, Alberto ed. Valencia Teige later gave his own explanation for his delay in joining the group.
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